There are two ways in Korean to form negation. ‘안’ and ‘-지 않아요’ are both used to make a negation. The easiest way is to just put the adverb ‘안‘ in front of verbs or adjectives. The second way to use the pattern ‘-지 않다‘. This pattern directly followes by verbs or adjectives. So, negation formed by ‘안‘ is called ‘short type negation’, and the Negation by ‘-지 않다‘ is ‘long type negation’.There is no difference in meaning between the form ‘안 + verb/adjective’ and the form ‘verb/adjective + –지 않아요‘.
1) Verbs : 안 + verb
- 봐요 → 안 봐요 : do not see
- 가요 → 안 가요 : do not go
- 먹요 → 안 먹어요 : do not eat
* for ‘noun + 해요’ verbs use : noun + 안 + 해요
- 요리해요 → 요리 안 해요 : do not cook
- 숙제해요 → 숙제 안 해요 : do not do homework
※ 안 요리해요(X), 안 숙제해요(X)
2) Adjectives : 안 + adjective
- 커요 → 안 커요 : is not big
- 작아요 → 안 작아요 : is not small
- 높아요 → 안 높아요 : is not high
2. -지 않아요[-ji a-na-yo]
* The same form is used when the verb/adjective stem ends in a consonant or a vowel.
1) Verbs : verb stem + –지 않아요
- 보다 → 보지 않아요: do not see
- 가다 → 가지 않아요: do not go
- 먹다 → 먹지 않아요: do not eat
2) Adjectives : adjective stem + –지 않아요
- 크다 → 크지 않아요: is not big
- 작다 → 작지 않아요: is not small
- 높다 → 높지 않아요: is not high
3. Special negative counterpats
Some verbs/adjectives have their own special negative counterparts. In these cases 안 or -지 않아요 are not used.
The negative opposite of 있다 is 없다, 이다 is 아니다, 알다 is 모르다.
1) 있다[i-dda] : to exist, to have ↔ 없다[eop-dda] : not to exist, not to have
2) 이다[i-da] : be ↔ 아니다[a-ni-da] : be not
3) 알다[al-da] : to know ↔ 모르다[mo-reu-da] : not to know