[Easy Korean] Unit 18 -아/어 주세요 : please do something

1. -아/어 주세요

‘-아/어 주세요’ expresses a polite request or polite command to someone to do something for the speaker.

‘-아/어 주세요’ is used with verb. If the last vowel of stem is ‘아’ or ‘오’, ‘-아 주세요’ is added. If the last vowel of the verb stem is a vowel other than ‘아’ or ‘오’, ‘-어 주세요’ is added. If the verb ends with ‘-하다’, ‘-하다’ is changed to ‘-해 주세요’.

닫다: 닫 -아 주세요 : 닫아 주세요
읽다: 읽 -어 주세요 : 읽어 주세요
하다: 해 주세요

E.g.
문을 닫아 주세요.
   Please close the door.
이 책을 읽어 주세요.
   Please read this book for me.
해 주세요.
    Please do this for me.

2. -아/어 보세요

‘-아/어 보세요’ is used to suggest that someone do or try doing something new.

‘-아/어 보세요’ is used with verb. If the last vowel of stem is ‘아’ or ‘오’, ‘-아 보세요’ is added. If the last vowel of the verb stem is a vowel other than ‘아’ or ‘오’, ‘-어 보세요’ is added. If the verb ends with ‘-하다’, ‘-하다’ is changed to ‘-해 보세요’.

먹다: 먹 -어 보세요 : 먹어보세요(Please try eating it.)
가다: 가 -아 보세요 : 가 보세요(Please try going there.)
말하다: 말해 보세요(Please try saying it.)

E.g.
이 책이 재미있어요. 한번 읽어 보세요.
This book is interesting. Please try reading it once.
불고기가 아주 맛있어요. 한번 먹어 보세요.
Bulgogi is so delicious. Please try eating it once.
선생님이 기다리고 있어요. 한번 전화 해 보세요.
The teacher is waiting for you. Please try calling once.

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[Easy Korean] Unit 17 -아/어야 해요 : must, have to, should

1. ‘-아/어야 하다’

‘-아/어야 해요’ expresses necessity. ‘-아/어야 해요’ is used with adjectives, verbs and ‘-이다/아니다’, ‘있다/없다’. If the last vowel of the stem is ‘아’ or ‘오’, ‘-아야 해요’ is added. If the last vowel of the stem is a vowel other than ‘아’ or ‘오’, ‘-어야 해요’ is added. If the same ends with ‘-하다’, then ‘-하다’ becomes ‘-해야 해요’.

mannam.korean.haveto.grammer

E.g.

오늘은 숙제가 많아요. 집에 가야 해요.
I have a lot of homework today. I should go home.

감기에 걸렸어요. 약을 먹어야 해요.
 I have a cold. I have to take medicine.

내일은 친구 생일이에요. 오늘 선물을 사야 해요.
Tomorrow is my friend’s birthday. I have to buy a present today.

내일 시험이 있어요. 오늘 밤에 공부해야 해요.
 I have exam tomorrow. I have to study tonight.

2. ‘-아/어야 되다’

‘아/어야 돼요’ and ‘아/어야 해요’ are the same in meaning, but  ‘-아/어야 돼요’ is slightly weaker than ‘-아/어야 해요’ . ‘-아/어야 돼요’ is used more often in colloquial situations.

E.g.

점심을 먹어야 돼요.
I have to eat lunch.

오늘 공부해야 돼요.
I have to study today.

3. ‘-지 않아도 되다’

* -지 않아도 돼요 : (do) not have to, not necessary to do

E.g.

내일은 휴일이에요. 회사에 가지 않아도 돼요.
Tomorrow is holiday. I don’t have to go to work.

무료 셔틀 버스예요. 티켓을 사지 않아도 돼요.
It is free shuttle bus. You don’t have to buy a ticket.

[Easy Korean] Unit 16 -은/ㄴ : Noun modifier

Korean adjectives are used at the end of a clause or sentence and conjugated like verbs.

The noun modifiers, -은/ㄴare added to adjectives and are always placed before the noun.

1. If the adjective ends in a vowel, -ㄴ is added to the stem, while -은 is added if the adjective ends in a consonant.

작다 : 작 -은작은 방(a small room)
예쁘다 : 예쁜 -ㄴ예쁜 꽃(a pretty flower)

2. -는 is used after -있다, -없다 and compound words like 재미있다, 맛있다.

맛있다 : 맛있 -는맛있는 음식(delicious food)
재미없다 : 재미없 -는재미없는 사람(an uninteresting person)

E.g.
① 가방[ga-bang] : bag – 크다[keu-da] : big

가방커요  →  가방을 사고 싶어요
The bag is big.                 I’d like to buy a big bag.

② 구두[gu-du] : dress shoes – 작다[jak-dda] : small

구두작아요  →  작은 구두 있어요? 
The shoes are small.             Are there any small shoes?

③ 시계[si-gye] : clock, watch – 비싸다[bi-ssa-da] : expensive

시계비싸요  →  비싼 시계예요. 만지지 마세요
The watch is expensive.      This is a expensive watch. Don’t touch it.

④ 치마[chi-ma] : skirt – 짧다[jjab-dda] : short

치마짧아요  →  짧은 치마를 입지 마세요
The skirt is short.                       Don’t wear the short skirt.

⑤ 음식[eum-sik] : food – 맛있다[ma-ssit-da] : delicious

음식맛있어요  →  맛있는 음식이 먹고 싶어요
The food is delicious.                      I’d like to eat delicious food.

⑥ 영화[young-hwa] : movie – 재미있다[jae-mi-i-dda] : interesting

영화재미있어요   → 재미있는 영화였어요 
The movie is interesting.                  It was an interesting movie.

⑦ 노트북[no-teu-book] : laptop – 가볍다*[ga-byup-da] : light

노트북가벼워요*  →  가벼운* 노트북이 좋아요
The laptop is light.                                   I like a light laptop.

*** ““irregular  :

Many verbs and adjectives whose stem ends with a (as a final consonant) are irregular. When these irregular stems are followed by a vowel, the is dropped and is added to the stem.

irregular_mannamkorean

[Easy Korean] Unit 15 Negative Sentences_안, ~지 않아요

There are two ways in Korean to form negation. ‘안’ and ‘-지 않아요’ are both used to make a negation. The easiest way is to just put the adverb ‘‘ in front of verbs or adjectives. The second way to use the pattern ‘-지 않다‘. This pattern directly followes by verbs or adjectives. So, negation formed by ‘‘ is called ‘short type negation’, and the Negation by ‘-지 않다 is ‘long type negation’.There is no difference in meaning between the form ‘ + verb/adjective’ and the form ‘verb/adjective + –지 않아요‘.

1. 안[an]

1) Verbs :     + verb

  • 봐요 → 봐요 :  do not see
  • 가요 → 가요 :  do not go
  • 먹요 → 먹어요 :  do not eat

   * for ‘noun + 해요’ verbs use : noun + + 해요

  • 요리해요 → 요리 해요 : do not cook 
  • 숙제해요 → 숙제 해요 :  do not do homework 

       안 요리해요(X), 안 숙제해요(X)

2) Adjectives :     + adjective

  • 커요 → 커요 :  is not big
  • 작아요 → 작아요 :  is not small
  • 높아요 → 높아요 :  is not high

2. -지 않아요[-ji a-na-yo]

* The same form is used when the verb/adjective stem ends in a consonant or a vowel.

1) Verbs : verb stem + –지 않아요

  • 보다 → 보지 않아요: do not see
  • 가다 → 가지 않아요: do not go
  • 먹다 → 먹지 않아요: do not eat

2) Adjectives : adjective stem + –지 않아요

  • 크다 → 크지 않아요: is not big
  • 작다 → 작지 않아요: is not small
  • 높다 → 높지 않아요: is not high

3. Special negative counterpats

Some verbs/adjectives have their own special negative counterparts. In these cases 안 or -지 않아요 are not used.

The negative opposite of 있다 is 없다, 이다 is 아니다, 알다 is 모르다.

1) 있다[i-dda] : to exist, to have  ↔  없다[eop-dda] : not to exist, not to have

2) 이다[i-da] : be   ↔  아니다[a-ni-da] : be not

3) 알다[al-da] : to know   ↔  모르다[mo-reu-da] : not to know

[Easy Korean] Unit 14 ~을 수 있어요/없어요 : can (do) / can not (do)

1. ~을(ㄹ) 수 있어요/없어요 : can (do) / can not (do)

~을(ㄹ) 수 있어요/없어요 is used to express ability/possibility or inability/impossibility.

~을(ㄹ) 수 있어요 indicates ability, capability, possibility or permission. ~을(ㄹ) 수 없어요 is the negative form.

~을(ㄹ) 수 있어요/없어요 is used with verbs. If the verb stem ends in a consonant, ‘~을 수 있어요/없어요’ is added, and if the verb stem ends in a vowel, ‘~ㄹ 수 있어요/없어요’ is added.

mannam.korean.can1

E.g. ① 한국어를 할 수 있어요. I can speak Korean.
② 오늘 갈 수 있어요. I can go today.
③ 오늘 같이 공부할 수 없어요. I can’t study together today.

2. ~을(ㄹ) 줄 알아요/몰라요 : to know/ not to know how to do something

~을(ㄹ) 줄 알아요 express that the subject knows and ~을(ㄹ) 줄 몰라요 that the subject does not know how to do a certain action.

~을(ㄹ) 줄 알아요/몰라요 is used with verbs. If the verb stem ends in consonant, ~을 줄 알아요/몰라요 is added, If the verb stem ends in a vowel, ~ㄹ 줄 알아요/몰라요 is added.

mannam.korean.can2

*** Note!!  What’s the difference?

When ‘~을(ㄹ) 수 있어요/없어요’ is used to express the ability to do something, ‘~을(ㄹ) 수 있어요/없어요’ has almost the same meaning as ‘~을(ㄹ) 줄 알아요/몰라요’, and therefore they can be interchanged.

E.g. 앤디 씨는 한국어를 할 수 있어요. = 앤디 씨는 한국어를 할 줄 알아요.
Andy can speak Korean.        Andy knows how to speak Korean.

However, while ‘~을(ㄹ) 수 있어요/없어요’ can also be used to express the possibility of doing something, ‘ ~을(ㄹ) 줄 알아요/몰라요’ cannot be.

~을(ㄹ) 줄 알아요/몰라요 expresses whether one knows how or has the ability to do something.
나는 딸기잼을 만들 줄 몰라요.
I don’t know how to make strawberry jam.

~수(ㄹ) 있어요/없어요 used not only to express the ability to do something but also whether a situation permits somethings to be done.
나는 딸기잼을 만들 수 없어요.
ⓐ I don’t know how to make strawberry jam.
ⓑ I know how to make strawberry jam, but for some reason(such as a lack of strawberries,) I can’t make it right now.

E.g.  저는 한국어를 할 수 있어요(O) I can speak Korean.
저는 한국어를 할 줄 알아요(O) I know how to speak Korean.

내일 영화를 볼 수 있어요.(O) I can/It’s possible to see a movie tomorrow.
내일 영화를 볼 줄 알아요(X)

[Easy Korean] Unit 13 형용사(Adjective)

Today, let’s have a look some Korean Adjectives.

mannam.korean.adjective

Adjectives are used to explain or describe the subject. Adjectives change their form the same way that verb do.

mannam.korean.adjective.grammer

E.g  ① 방이 작아요 : The room is small.

     ② 꽃이비싸요 : The flower is expensive.

     ③ 한국 영화가 재미있어요 : Korean movies are interesting.

[Easy Korean] Unit 12 Future Tense

~을(ㄹ) 거예요 [~eul(l) geo-ye-yo] : to be going to do something

 ex) 가다[ga-da] : to go   ▶  가 + ㄹ 거예요 ▶   갈  예요 [gal geo-ye-yo]: I’m going to go.

을거예요

*** Practice

먹다 : to eat

   ▷ 오늘 친구하고 점심을 먹을 거예요 : I am going to have lunch with my friend today.

② 가다 : to go

   ▷ 다음 주에 부산에 갈 거예요 : I am going to go to Busan next week.

③ 공부하 : to study

   ▷ 오늘부터 한국어 공부를 할 거예요 : I am going to study Korean from today.

 

NOTE!

With verb that end in the consonant “” such as ‘만들다‘, ‘살다‘ and ‘놀다‘, the ‘‘ of the stem is dropped (resulting in a verb stem that ends in a vowel), and then ‘~ㄹ 거예요‘ is added to the stem.

ㄹ불규칙