[Easy Korean] Unit 17 -아/어야 해요 : must, have to, should

1. ‘-아/어야 하다’

‘-아/어야 해요’ expresses necessity. ‘-아/어야 해요’ is used with adjectives, verbs and ‘-이다/아니다’, ‘있다/없다’. If the last vowel of the stem is ‘아’ or ‘오’, ‘-아야 해요’ is added. If the last vowel of the stem is a vowel other than ‘아’ or ‘오’, ‘-어야 해요’ is added. If the same ends with ‘-하다’, then ‘-하다’ becomes ‘-해야 해요’.

mannam.korean.haveto.grammer

E.g.

오늘은 숙제가 많아요. 집에 가야 해요.
I have a lot of homework today. I should go home.

감기에 걸렸어요. 약을 먹어야 해요.
 I have a cold. I have to take medicine.

내일은 친구 생일이에요. 오늘 선물을 사야 해요.
Tomorrow is my friend’s birthday. I have to buy a present today.

내일 시험이 있어요. 오늘 밤에 공부해야 해요.
 I have exam tomorrow. I have to study tonight.

2. ‘-아/어야 되다’

‘아/어야 돼요’ and ‘아/어야 해요’ are the same in meaning, but  ‘-아/어야 돼요’ is slightly weaker than ‘-아/어야 해요’ . ‘-아/어야 돼요’ is used more often in colloquial situations.

E.g.

점심을 먹어야 돼요.
I have to eat lunch.

오늘 공부해야 돼요.
I have to study today.

3. ‘-지 않아도 되다’

* -지 않아도 돼요 : (do) not have to, not necessary to do

E.g.

내일은 휴일이에요. 회사에 가지 않아도 돼요.
Tomorrow is holiday. I don’t have to go to work.

무료 셔틀 버스예요. 티켓을 사지 않아도 돼요.
It is free shuttle bus. You don’t have to buy a ticket.

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[Easy Korean] Unit 16 -은/ㄴ : Noun modifier

Korean adjectives are used at the end of a clause or sentence and conjugated like verbs.

The noun modifiers, -은/ㄴare added to adjectives and are always placed before the noun.

1. If the adjective ends in a vowel, -ㄴ is added to the stem, while -은 is added if the adjective ends in a consonant.

작다 : 작 -은작은 방(a small room)
예쁘다 : 예쁜 -ㄴ예쁜 꽃(a pretty flower)

2. -는 is used after -있다, -없다 and compound words like 재미있다, 맛있다.

맛있다 : 맛있 -는맛있는 음식(delicious food)
재미없다 : 재미없 -는재미없는 사람(an uninteresting person)

E.g.
① 가방[ga-bang] : bag – 크다[keu-da] : big

가방커요  →  가방을 사고 싶어요
The bag is big.                 I’d like to buy a big bag.

② 구두[gu-du] : dress shoes – 작다[jak-dda] : small

구두작아요  →  작은 구두 있어요? 
The shoes are small.             Are there any small shoes?

③ 시계[si-gye] : clock, watch – 비싸다[bi-ssa-da] : expensive

시계비싸요  →  비싼 시계예요. 만지지 마세요
The watch is expensive.      This is a expensive watch. Don’t touch it.

④ 치마[chi-ma] : skirt – 짧다[jjab-dda] : short

치마짧아요  →  짧은 치마를 입지 마세요
The skirt is short.                       Don’t wear the short skirt.

⑤ 음식[eum-sik] : food – 맛있다[ma-ssit-da] : delicious

음식맛있어요  →  맛있는 음식이 먹고 싶어요
The food is delicious.                      I’d like to eat delicious food.

⑥ 영화[young-hwa] : movie – 재미있다[jae-mi-i-dda] : interesting

영화재미있어요   → 재미있는 영화였어요 
The movie is interesting.                  It was an interesting movie.

⑦ 노트북[no-teu-book] : laptop – 가볍다*[ga-byup-da] : light

노트북가벼워요*  →  가벼운* 노트북이 좋아요
The laptop is light.                                   I like a light laptop.

*** ““irregular  :

Many verbs and adjectives whose stem ends with a (as a final consonant) are irregular. When these irregular stems are followed by a vowel, the is dropped and is added to the stem.

irregular_mannamkorean

[Easy Korean] Unit 15 Negative Sentences_안, ~지 않아요

There are two ways in Korean to form negation. ‘안’ and ‘-지 않아요’ are both used to make a negation. The easiest way is to just put the adverb ‘‘ in front of verbs or adjectives. The second way to use the pattern ‘-지 않다‘. This pattern directly followes by verbs or adjectives. So, negation formed by ‘‘ is called ‘short type negation’, and the Negation by ‘-지 않다 is ‘long type negation’.There is no difference in meaning between the form ‘ + verb/adjective’ and the form ‘verb/adjective + –지 않아요‘.

1. 안[an]

1) Verbs :     + verb

  • 봐요 → 봐요 :  do not see
  • 가요 → 가요 :  do not go
  • 먹요 → 먹어요 :  do not eat

   * for ‘noun + 해요’ verbs use : noun + + 해요

  • 요리해요 → 요리 해요 : do not cook 
  • 숙제해요 → 숙제 해요 :  do not do homework 

       안 요리해요(X), 안 숙제해요(X)

2) Adjectives :     + adjective

  • 커요 → 커요 :  is not big
  • 작아요 → 작아요 :  is not small
  • 높아요 → 높아요 :  is not high

2. -지 않아요[-ji a-na-yo]

* The same form is used when the verb/adjective stem ends in a consonant or a vowel.

1) Verbs : verb stem + –지 않아요

  • 보다 → 보지 않아요: do not see
  • 가다 → 가지 않아요: do not go
  • 먹다 → 먹지 않아요: do not eat

2) Adjectives : adjective stem + –지 않아요

  • 크다 → 크지 않아요: is not big
  • 작다 → 작지 않아요: is not small
  • 높다 → 높지 않아요: is not high

3. Special negative counterpats

Some verbs/adjectives have their own special negative counterparts. In these cases 안 or -지 않아요 are not used.

The negative opposite of 있다 is 없다, 이다 is 아니다, 알다 is 모르다.

1) 있다[i-dda] : to exist, to have  ↔  없다[eop-dda] : not to exist, not to have

2) 이다[i-da] : be   ↔  아니다[a-ni-da] : be not

3) 알다[al-da] : to know   ↔  모르다[mo-reu-da] : not to know

[Quotes and Korean] #003

세상에서 보기를 바라는 변화,

스스로 그 변화가 되어야 한다.

                                              – 마하트마 간디

QuotesMNKC

*Meaning
▶ You must be the change you want to see in the world. – Mahatma Gandhi

*Vocabulary
세상[se-sang] : the world
바라다[ba-ra-da] : wish, hope, want
변화[byun-hwa] : change
스스로[seu-seu-ro] : oneself
되다[dwe-da] : be, become

*Grammar
1. ~기 : Modifying Nouns with Verbs
보다(to see, to watch) + ~기 → 보기(seeing, watching)
ex) 영화 보기가 힘들어요. : Watching a movie(Being able to see a movie) is difficult.

2. ~아/어야 하다 : have to, must
되다(be) + ~어야 하다 → 되어야 하다 : must be

[Easy Korean] Unit 14 ~을 수 있어요/없어요 : can (do) / can not (do)

1. ~을(ㄹ) 수 있어요/없어요 : can (do) / can not (do)

~을(ㄹ) 수 있어요/없어요 is used to express ability/possibility or inability/impossibility.

~을(ㄹ) 수 있어요 indicates ability, capability, possibility or permission. ~을(ㄹ) 수 없어요 is the negative form.

~을(ㄹ) 수 있어요/없어요 is used with verbs. If the verb stem ends in a consonant, ‘~을 수 있어요/없어요’ is added, and if the verb stem ends in a vowel, ‘~ㄹ 수 있어요/없어요’ is added.

mannam.korean.can1

E.g. ① 한국어를 할 수 있어요. I can speak Korean.
② 오늘 갈 수 있어요. I can go today.
③ 오늘 같이 공부할 수 없어요. I can’t study together today.

2. ~을(ㄹ) 줄 알아요/몰라요 : to know/ not to know how to do something

~을(ㄹ) 줄 알아요 express that the subject knows and ~을(ㄹ) 줄 몰라요 that the subject does not know how to do a certain action.

~을(ㄹ) 줄 알아요/몰라요 is used with verbs. If the verb stem ends in consonant, ~을 줄 알아요/몰라요 is added, If the verb stem ends in a vowel, ~ㄹ 줄 알아요/몰라요 is added.

mannam.korean.can2

*** Note!!  What’s the difference?

When ‘~을(ㄹ) 수 있어요/없어요’ is used to express the ability to do something, ‘~을(ㄹ) 수 있어요/없어요’ has almost the same meaning as ‘~을(ㄹ) 줄 알아요/몰라요’, and therefore they can be interchanged.

E.g. 앤디 씨는 한국어를 할 수 있어요. = 앤디 씨는 한국어를 할 줄 알아요.
Andy can speak Korean.        Andy knows how to speak Korean.

However, while ‘~을(ㄹ) 수 있어요/없어요’ can also be used to express the possibility of doing something, ‘ ~을(ㄹ) 줄 알아요/몰라요’ cannot be.

~을(ㄹ) 줄 알아요/몰라요 expresses whether one knows how or has the ability to do something.
나는 딸기잼을 만들 줄 몰라요.
I don’t know how to make strawberry jam.

~수(ㄹ) 있어요/없어요 used not only to express the ability to do something but also whether a situation permits somethings to be done.
나는 딸기잼을 만들 수 없어요.
ⓐ I don’t know how to make strawberry jam.
ⓑ I know how to make strawberry jam, but for some reason(such as a lack of strawberries,) I can’t make it right now.

E.g.  저는 한국어를 할 수 있어요(O) I can speak Korean.
저는 한국어를 할 줄 알아요(O) I know how to speak Korean.

내일 영화를 볼 수 있어요.(O) I can/It’s possible to see a movie tomorrow.
내일 영화를 볼 줄 알아요(X)

[Quotes and Korean] #002

 

전쟁에서 수천의

 

혼자 싸워서 이기는 것보다

 

자기 자신을 이기는 것

 

전사 중에 최고의 전사이다.

 

Lighthouse

____________________________________

전쟁[jeon-jaeng] : war
적[jeock] : enemy
혼자[hon-ja] : alone, on one’s own
이기다[i-gi-da] : win, overcome  → 이기는 것[i-gi-neun geok] : overcoming
전사[jeon-sa] : warrior

* ~는 것: Modifying Nouns with Verbs

[Session7_2A] 단어설명게임

Let’s see what happens in Mannam Korean 2A Class this week.

Today, we studied some vocabulary what we learned in level 2A with the speed game.

 

mannam.korean.00

This is how to play this game.

 

1. First of all, we divide all the students into two teams and the leader of each team comes to the front and looks at their team members.

 

mannam.korean.game01

2. The members in each team need to explain the vocab on the board in Korean.

mannam.korean.game02

mannam.korean.game02-2

3.The leader needs to give answers about what their team member explain.

mannam.korean.game03

4. After we finish the game, we take the seat again and go over all the right answers as well as mistakes.

mannam.korean.game04

This time, there were 3 vocabulary given from the teacher.

mannam.korean.game.vocab

“같다(To be the same)”, “도착하다(To arrive)”, “구경하다(To look around/ have a look)”

It is difficult to memorize the new vocabulary always, and even harder to explain them in Korean,

However, it’s great time to study with the fun game which is more productive.

 

If you practice more for explaining some vocabulary in Korean, your Korean will be improved more quickly.

All the best wishes to who studies Korean language. 🙂

 

Apr 13, 2013
Mannam Korean Class [Guro Center]