[Easy Korean] Unit 17 -아/어야 해요 : must, have to, should

1. ‘-아/어야 하다’

‘-아/어야 해요’ expresses necessity. ‘-아/어야 해요’ is used with adjectives, verbs and ‘-이다/아니다’, ‘있다/없다’. If the last vowel of the stem is ‘아’ or ‘오’, ‘-아야 해요’ is added. If the last vowel of the stem is a vowel other than ‘아’ or ‘오’, ‘-어야 해요’ is added. If the same ends with ‘-하다’, then ‘-하다’ becomes ‘-해야 해요’.



오늘은 숙제가 많아요. 집에 가야 해요.
I have a lot of homework today. I should go home.

감기에 걸렸어요. 약을 먹어야 해요.
 I have a cold. I have to take medicine.

내일은 친구 생일이에요. 오늘 선물을 사야 해요.
Tomorrow is my friend’s birthday. I have to buy a present today.

내일 시험이 있어요. 오늘 밤에 공부해야 해요.
 I have exam tomorrow. I have to study tonight.

2. ‘-아/어야 되다’

‘아/어야 돼요’ and ‘아/어야 해요’ are the same in meaning, but  ‘-아/어야 돼요’ is slightly weaker than ‘-아/어야 해요’ . ‘-아/어야 돼요’ is used more often in colloquial situations.


점심을 먹어야 돼요.
I have to eat lunch.

오늘 공부해야 돼요.
I have to study today.

3. ‘-지 않아도 되다’

* -지 않아도 돼요 : (do) not have to, not necessary to do


내일은 휴일이에요. 회사에 가지 않아도 돼요.
Tomorrow is holiday. I don’t have to go to work.

무료 셔틀 버스예요. 티켓을 사지 않아도 돼요.
It is free shuttle bus. You don’t have to buy a ticket.

[Easy Korean] Unit 16 -은/ㄴ : Noun modifier

Korean adjectives are used at the end of a clause or sentence and conjugated like verbs.

The noun modifiers, -은/ㄴare added to adjectives and are always placed before the noun.

1. If the adjective ends in a vowel, -ㄴ is added to the stem, while -은 is added if the adjective ends in a consonant.

작다 : 작 -은작은 방(a small room)
예쁘다 : 예쁜 -ㄴ예쁜 꽃(a pretty flower)

2. -는 is used after -있다, -없다 and compound words like 재미있다, 맛있다.

맛있다 : 맛있 -는맛있는 음식(delicious food)
재미없다 : 재미없 -는재미없는 사람(an uninteresting person)

① 가방[ga-bang] : bag – 크다[keu-da] : big

가방커요  →  가방을 사고 싶어요
The bag is big.                 I’d like to buy a big bag.

② 구두[gu-du] : dress shoes – 작다[jak-dda] : small

구두작아요  →  작은 구두 있어요? 
The shoes are small.             Are there any small shoes?

③ 시계[si-gye] : clock, watch – 비싸다[bi-ssa-da] : expensive

시계비싸요  →  비싼 시계예요. 만지지 마세요
The watch is expensive.      This is a expensive watch. Don’t touch it.

④ 치마[chi-ma] : skirt – 짧다[jjab-dda] : short

치마짧아요  →  짧은 치마를 입지 마세요
The skirt is short.                       Don’t wear the short skirt.

⑤ 음식[eum-sik] : food – 맛있다[ma-ssit-da] : delicious

음식맛있어요  →  맛있는 음식이 먹고 싶어요
The food is delicious.                      I’d like to eat delicious food.

⑥ 영화[young-hwa] : movie – 재미있다[jae-mi-i-dda] : interesting

영화재미있어요   → 재미있는 영화였어요 
The movie is interesting.                  It was an interesting movie.

⑦ 노트북[no-teu-book] : laptop – 가볍다*[ga-byup-da] : light

노트북가벼워요*  →  가벼운* 노트북이 좋아요
The laptop is light.                                   I like a light laptop.

*** ““irregular  :

Many verbs and adjectives whose stem ends with a (as a final consonant) are irregular. When these irregular stems are followed by a vowel, the is dropped and is added to the stem.


[Quotes and Korean] #005

남을 너그럽게 받아들이는 사람은

항상 사람의 마음을 얻게 되고,

위엄과 무력으로 엄하게 다스리는 자는

항상 사람들의 노여움을 사게 된다.

– 세종대왕(King Se-Jong)-

Those who embrace others with generosity always win their heart,

but those who command others with power always arouse their anger.


[Quotes and Korean] #003

세상에서 보기를 바라는 변화,

스스로 그 변화가 되어야 한다.

                                              – 마하트마 간디


▶ You must be the change you want to see in the world. – Mahatma Gandhi

세상[se-sang] : the world
바라다[ba-ra-da] : wish, hope, want
변화[byun-hwa] : change
스스로[seu-seu-ro] : oneself
되다[dwe-da] : be, become

1. ~기 : Modifying Nouns with Verbs
보다(to see, to watch) + ~기 → 보기(seeing, watching)
ex) 영화 보기가 힘들어요. : Watching a movie(Being able to see a movie) is difficult.

2. ~아/어야 하다 : have to, must
되다(be) + ~어야 하다 → 되어야 하다 : must be

[Easy Korean] Unit 14 ~을 수 있어요/없어요 : can (do) / can not (do)

1. ~을(ㄹ) 수 있어요/없어요 : can (do) / can not (do)

~을(ㄹ) 수 있어요/없어요 is used to express ability/possibility or inability/impossibility.

~을(ㄹ) 수 있어요 indicates ability, capability, possibility or permission. ~을(ㄹ) 수 없어요 is the negative form.

~을(ㄹ) 수 있어요/없어요 is used with verbs. If the verb stem ends in a consonant, ‘~을 수 있어요/없어요’ is added, and if the verb stem ends in a vowel, ‘~ㄹ 수 있어요/없어요’ is added.


E.g. ① 한국어를 할 수 있어요. I can speak Korean.
② 오늘 갈 수 있어요. I can go today.
③ 오늘 같이 공부할 수 없어요. I can’t study together today.

2. ~을(ㄹ) 줄 알아요/몰라요 : to know/ not to know how to do something

~을(ㄹ) 줄 알아요 express that the subject knows and ~을(ㄹ) 줄 몰라요 that the subject does not know how to do a certain action.

~을(ㄹ) 줄 알아요/몰라요 is used with verbs. If the verb stem ends in consonant, ~을 줄 알아요/몰라요 is added, If the verb stem ends in a vowel, ~ㄹ 줄 알아요/몰라요 is added.


*** Note!!  What’s the difference?

When ‘~을(ㄹ) 수 있어요/없어요’ is used to express the ability to do something, ‘~을(ㄹ) 수 있어요/없어요’ has almost the same meaning as ‘~을(ㄹ) 줄 알아요/몰라요’, and therefore they can be interchanged.

E.g. 앤디 씨는 한국어를 할 수 있어요. = 앤디 씨는 한국어를 할 줄 알아요.
Andy can speak Korean.        Andy knows how to speak Korean.

However, while ‘~을(ㄹ) 수 있어요/없어요’ can also be used to express the possibility of doing something, ‘ ~을(ㄹ) 줄 알아요/몰라요’ cannot be.

~을(ㄹ) 줄 알아요/몰라요 expresses whether one knows how or has the ability to do something.
나는 딸기잼을 만들 줄 몰라요.
I don’t know how to make strawberry jam.

~수(ㄹ) 있어요/없어요 used not only to express the ability to do something but also whether a situation permits somethings to be done.
나는 딸기잼을 만들 수 없어요.
ⓐ I don’t know how to make strawberry jam.
ⓑ I know how to make strawberry jam, but for some reason(such as a lack of strawberries,) I can’t make it right now.

E.g.  저는 한국어를 할 수 있어요(O) I can speak Korean.
저는 한국어를 할 줄 알아요(O) I know how to speak Korean.

내일 영화를 볼 수 있어요.(O) I can/It’s possible to see a movie tomorrow.
내일 영화를 볼 줄 알아요(X)